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Cows – females that have borne at least one calf.

Steers – males castrated when very young.

Heifers – females that have never borne a calf.

Bulls – males under age of 2.

Veal – Though there are no precise age standards for veal, the term is generally used to describe a young calf from 1 to 3 months old.  Milk-fed veal comes from calves  up to 12 weeks of age who have not been weaned from their mother's milk.

USDA Grades – Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter and Canner

Prime - It has an abundant amount of marbling (the network of fine lines of white fat). This marbling, as well as other factors such as feed quality, and aging, adds to the rich flavor and fine texture of the best cuts.

Choice - Choice can be nearly as good as Prime, especially in the top 2/3 of the grade. Generally, it tends to have a little less marbling.

Select - Select has less marbling than Choice, and will have even less complexity to the flavor.

Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter & Canned - Standard, Commercial, Utility, Cutter, and Canner, are not usually sold in grocery stores or butcher shops. They are usually reserved for uses that do not require better grades of beef. They come from older cattle, and the name "Canner" sort of explains itself. 

Marbling – intramuscular fat that adds flavor.

Primal Cuts - basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut.

Dry Heat Cooking Methods – Grilling, Broiling, Roasting

Moist Heat Cooking Methods – Stewing, Braising

Doneness – Blue, rare, medium rare, medium, medium well, well done.

Blue 115ºF - 125ºF Blood-red meat, soft, very juicy
Rare 125ºF - 130ºF Red center, gray surface, soft, juicy
Medium rare 130ºF - 140ºF Pink center, gray-brown surface
Medium 140ºF - 150ºF Slightly pink center, becomes gray-brown towards surface
Medium well 150ºF - 160ºF Mostly gray center, firm texture.
Well done 160+ ºF Gray-brown throughout.